1] A.J. McEwan, Use of radionuclides for the palliation of bone metastases, Semin Radiat Oncol, 2000 Apr; 10(2): 103-14.
2] World Health Organization, The world health report 2000 – Health systems: improving performance, at http://www.who.int/whr/2000/en/.
5] D.W. Taylor, 2020 Healthcare Management in Canada: A New Model Home Next Door, Healthcare Management FORUM, 2003; 16:1, 6-11.
6] The Rx&D International Report on Access to Medicines, 2008-2009.
7] Statistics Canada, Health Reports: Cancer prevalence in the Canadian population: Table 1 (http://www.statcan.gc.ca accessed June 21, 2011).
8] D.P. Petralak, et.al. Docetaxel and estramustine compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone for advanced refractory prostate cancer, N Engl J Med, 2004; 351: 1513-1520
9] I.F. Tannock, et.al. Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer, N Engl J Med, 351: 1502-15123S.
10] Aboulafia AJ, Levine AM, Schmidt D, Aboulafia D. Surgical therapy of bone metastases, Semin Oncol. (2007 Jun) 34(3):206-14
11] Imaging in Oncology: Evaluation of Bone Metastases in Lung Cancer, Clinical Case, Cancer Control, May 2002 (viewed at www.medscape.com/viewarticle/438532_2)
12] Program in Evidence-Based Care, Cancer Care Ontario, Radiopharmaceuticals for the Palliation of Painful Bone Metastasis, Practice Guideline Report #14-1, Toronto ON, Government of Ontario, June 15, 2004
13] Alberta Health Services, Palliative Radiotherapy Clinical Practice Guideline PAL-001, Edmonton AB: Government of Alberta, 2010.
14] American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons at http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00093.
15] R.E. Coleman, Metastatic bone disease: clinical figures, pathophysiology and treatment strategies, Cancer Treat Rev, (2001) 27:165-17
16] W. Herring, Albert Einstein Medical Centre, Philadelphia, PA, http://www.leearningradiology.com/archives05/ COW%20142-Ostoeblastic%20mets/blastic.
17] S-M. Tu et.al. , Phase I Study of Concurrent Weekly Docetaxel and Repeated Samarium-153 Lexidronam in Patients with Castration-Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer, J Clin Oncol, (2008) 20:5393
18] A. Berger, et.al., Use of oral and transdermal opioids among patients with metastatic cancer during the last year of life, J Pain Symptom Manage, 2003;26:723-730.
19] F.J. Papatheofanis, C. Smith and M. Najib, Improvement in Sensory Pain Rating After Palliative Systemic Radionuclide Therapy in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer, Am J of Therapeutics, 2009;16(2):127-132.
20] E. Olea, et.al., Efficacy and toxicity of 153Sm EDTMP in the palliative treatment of painful skeleton metastases: results of an IAEA international multicentre study[abstract], J Nucl Med, 2000; 51:146p
21] J.H. Tian, et.al., Multicentre trial on the efficacy and toxicity of single-dose samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate as a palliative treatment for painful skeletal metastases in China, Eur J Nucl Med, 1999; 26:2-7.
22] H.F. Deng, S.Z. Luo, and T.Z. Tan, The effect of 153-Sm-EDTMP on moderate and severe bone cancer pain[Abstract], J Nucl Med, 1997; 38:251p; and, C. Collins, et.al. Samarium-153-EDTMP in bone metastases of hormone refractory prostate carcinoma: a phase I/II trial, J Nucl Med, 1993; 34:1839-1844.
23] O. Sartor, et.al. A double blind placebo-controlled study of 153Samarium-EDTMP for palliation of bone pain in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer[Abstract], J Urol, 1997; 157-321
24] A.N. Serafini, et.al. Palliation of pain associated with metastatic bone cancer using samarium-153 lexidronam: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, J Clin Oncol, 1998; 16:1574-1581.
25] A.T. Porter, et.al., Results of a randomized phase III trial to evaluate the efficacy of strontium-89 adjuvant to local field external beam irradiation in the management of endocrine resistant metastatic prostate cancer, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 1993;25:805-813
26] O. Sartor, et.al. Samarium-153-Lexidronam complex for treatment of painful bone metastases in hormone-refractory prostate cancer, Urology, 2004;63(5):940-5.
27] O. Sartor, Radiopharmaceutical and Chemotherapy Combinations in Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A New Beginning? J Clin Oncol, 2009; 27(15):2417-2418.
28] C. Collins, et.al. Samarium-153-EDTMP in bone metastases of hormone refractory prostate carcinoma: a phase I/II trial, J Nucl Med, 1993; 34:1839-1844.
29] A. Alberts, B. Smit, W. Louw et.al., Dose response relationship and multiple dose efficacy and toxicity of samarium-153-EDTMP in metastatic cancer to bone, Radiother Oncol, 1997; 43:175.
30] Myeloma Foundation, Understanding Samarium-153, North Hollywood, CA: IMF, July 2006.
31] S.M. Tu, et.al., Bone-targeted therapy for advanced androgen-independent carcinoma of the prostate: A randomized phase II trial, Lancet, 2001;357:336-341
32] M.J. Morris, et.al., Phase I study of samarium-153 lexdronam with docetaxel in castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer, J Clin Oncol, 2009;27:2436-2442
33] K. Fizazi, et.al., Phase II trial of consolidation docetaxel and samarium-153 in patients with bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer, J Clin Oncol, 2009;27:2429-2435.
34] Health Technology Inquiry Service, Radiopharmaceutical Therapy for the Treatment of Metastatic Bone Pain: Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness, Ottawa ON: CADTH, December 4, 2008.
35] G. Bauman, et.al. Radiopharmaceuticals for the palliation of painful bone metastasis – a systemic review, Radiother Oncol 2005; 75(3):258-70.
36] I.G. Finlay, et.al. Radioisotopes for the palliation of metastatic bone cancer: a systematic review, Lancet Oncol, 2005; 6(6):392-400.
37] L.M. Velasco, et.al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of samario-153 (Samarium-153) for the treatment of patients with prostate cancer and bone metastases, Clin transl oncology, 2005(June) 7(5)198-204
38] http://www.xe.com (accessed June 22, 2011)
39] C. Miyamoto, J. Wobb, B. Micaily, S. Li, M. Achary. A Retrospective Match Controlled Study of Supersaturated Calcium Phosphate Oral Rinse (SCPOR) vs. Supportive Care for Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis. Support Care Cancer. 2009; 27:911.
4]0 A.J. McEwan, et.al. A retrospective analysis of the cost-effectiveness of treatment with Metastron (89Sr-chloride) in patients with prostate cancer metastatic to bone, Nucl Med Commun, 1994; 15(7):499-504.
R.F. Wang, et.al. A comparative study ofsamarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid with pamidronate disodium in the treatment of patients with painful metastatic bone cancer, Med Princ Pract, 2003; 12(2):97-101.
42] O. Sartor, et.al., Safety and efficacy of repeat administration of samarium SM-153 lexidronam to patients with metastatic bone pain, Cancer, 2007;109:637-43.
43] World Health Organization, Cancer pain relief and palliative care: report of a WHO expert committee (Technical Report Series 804), Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 1990; and, Cancer Pain Guideline Panel, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Management of cancer pain: adults, Am Fam Physician, 1994;49:1853-1868.
44] F.J. Papatheofanis, C. Smith and M. Najib, Improvement in Sensory Pain Rating After Palliative Systemic Radionuclide Therapy in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer, Am J of Therapeutics, 2009;16(2):131.
45] G. D. Roodman, Mechanisms of Metastasis, N Engl J Med, (2004) 350: 1655-1664.
46] A.J. Aboulafia, A. M. Levine, D. Schmidt, D. Aboulafia. Surgical therapy of bone metastases. Semin Oncol. (2007 Jun) 34(3):206-14; and, Imaging in Oncology: Evaluation of Bone Metastases in Lung Cancer, Clinical Case, Cancer Control, May 2002 (viewed at www.medscape.com/viewarticle/438532_2).